Content about Research Highlight

October 6, 2017

Lithium–air (Li–O2) batteries may possess energy densities close to that of gasoline. It is commonly known that the Li–O2 battery often forms insoluble discharge products, mainly oxides, which accelerate the degradation of the electrode and electrolyte, thus reducing the cycle stability and efficiency. Investigation of the stability of oxygen-rich lithium oxides would greatly extend our knowledge on improving the capability and lifetime of lithium–air batteries. More...

Lithium–air (Li–O2) batteries may possess energy densities close to that of gasoline. It is commonly known that the Li–O2 battery often forms insoluble discharge products, mainly oxides, which accelerate the degradation of the electrode and electrolyte, thus reducing the cycle stability and efficiency. Lithium superoxide has been considered as an alternative cathode based on reduced graphene oxide. The major problem is that the lithium superoxide is unstable at ambient condition. Investigation of the stability of oxygen-rich lithium oxides would greatly extend our knowledge on improving the capability and lifetime of lithium–air batteries. Based on the theoretical predictions, a research team has used the HPCAT facility in successfully synthesizing several new stable oxygen-rich lithium oxides under high pressure.

September 18, 2017

Magnesium is the lightest structural metal, 35% lighter than aluminum and 78% lighter than steel, thus possessing an exceptional lightweightness (strength-to-weight ratio). However, because of its hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure, the associated slips in hcp-Mg often causes Mg having limited ductility and formability. A research group using the HPCAT facility has synthesized 5 nm/5 nm Mg/Nb nanocomposites that display exceptional strength, ductility, and thermal stability.  More...

Magnesium is the lightest structural metal, with 35% lighter than aluminum and 78% lighter than steel, thus possessing an exceptional lightweightness (strength-to-weight ratio). However, because of its hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure, the associated slips in hcp-Mg often causes Mg having limited ductility and formability. A research group has synthesized 5 nm/5 nm Mg/Nb nanocomposites that display exceptional strength, ductility, and thermal stability. Using the HPCAT facility, the group found that the Mg present in the 5 nm/5 nm Mg/Nb nanocomposite is of entirely body-centered cubic (bcc) structure, without any trace of hcp Mg.  The bcc nano-Mg leads to a 40% higher strength and 125% increase in strain to failure as compared to 50 nm/50 nm Mg/Nb nanocomposites (where Mg has an hcp structure) made by the same method.

August 29, 2017

C, Si and Ge all have sp3-bonded crystalline phases with cubic diamond structure. Both Si and Ge display well-known sp3-bonded tetrahedral amorphous forms which have widespread applications. However, the counterpart in C, an amorphous form of diamond, has been conspicuously missing and remained a puzzle.  More....

C, Si and Ge all have sp3-bonded crystalline phases with cubic diamond structure. Both Si and Ge display well-known sp3-bonded tetrahedral amorphous forms which have widespread applications. However, the counterpart in C, an amorphous form of diamond, has been conspicuously missing and remained a puzzle. By combining high pressure with in situ laser heating at a specific temperature window, a research group using HPCAT facilities successfully turned amorphous carbon to amorphous diamond. The amorphous diamond has a three dimensional sp3-bonded network structure similar to crystalline diamond, with ultrahigh incompressibility (bulk modulus) comparable to diamond, but lacking long-range periodic order. Moreover, this amorphous diamond is found to be recoverable at ambient conditions. More in Zeng et al., Nature Comm. 8, 322, (2017)

July 17, 2017

The interplay of magnetism and superconductivity in iron-based superconductors remains a subject of extensive studies. Recently, pressure induced superconductivity was observed in Fe-ladder compound BaFe2S3, a quasi-one-dimensional prototype of iron-based superconductors. More....

The interplay of magnetism and superconductivity in iron-based superconductors remains a subject of extensive studies. Recently, pressure induced superconductivity was observed in Fe-ladder compound BaFe2S3, a quasi-one-dimensional prototype of iron-based superconductors. However, it is unclear whether the mechanism of superconductivity in BaFe2S3 is similar to two-dimensional iron-based superconductors. By combining the measurements of electric resistance, magnetic susceptibility, and Fe-Kb x-ray emission spectroscopy at HPCAT,  a research team observed superconductivity in a compressed BaFe2Se3 sample, with the results implying a new family of iron-based superconductors for such one dimensional Fe-ladder compounds .

June 26, 2017

Accurate pressure scales remain a challenging subject in compression science.  In order to intercalibrate the equations of state (EOSs) of the three widely used pressure standards, gold, platinum, and MgO, a research group has measured their unit cell volumes using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell up to 140 GPa and 2500 K.   More...

Accurate pressure scales remain a challenging subject in compression science. Intercomparison of the pressure standards provides important information on their accuracies and reconciles discrepancies between experimental results based on different pressure scales. In order to intercalibrate the equations of state (EOSs) of the three widely used pressure standards, gold, platinum, and MgO, a research group has measured their unit cell volumes using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell up to 140 GPa and 2500 K. The simultaneous measurements of Au+MgO and Pt+MgO allow to compare the EOSs of Au, Pt, and MgO directly at high P-T and further refine them for consistency. At 300 K, three standards agree with each other within ±2.5 GPa to 135 GPa in quasi-hydrostatic media. Refined EOSs have been obtained at 300 K, making the measured results consistent with each other within ±1 GPa up to 135 GPa.

June 23, 2017

For decades it has been believed that lithium, the simplest metallic element, has a complicated ground-state crystal structure. Using synchrotron x-ray diffraction at HPCAT and multiscale simulations with density functional theory and molecular dynamics, a research group has shown that the previously accepted martensitic ground state is metastable. More...

For decades it has been believed that lithium, the simplest metallic element, has a complicated ground-state crystal structure. Using synchrotron x-ray diffraction at HPCAT and multiscale simulations with density functional theory and molecular dynamics, a research group has shown that the previously accepted martensitic ground state is metastable. The new ground state is face-centered cubic. The group shows that different isotopes of lithium (6Li and 7Li) display crystal phase transitions at slightly different pressures and temperatures under similar thermal paths, which could be related to large quantum mechanical effects between the isotopes. Lithium is an extremely challenging material for high-pressure studies: It reacts chemically with many materials (e.g., it causes gasket metals and diamonds to become brittle), and diffraction experiments are challenging because of low scattering cross sections.

June 9, 2017

Carbon gives rise to remarkable classes of materials with combined properties, such as low weight, high strength, hardness, elasticity, and tunable electronic properties, because of the flexibility to form sp-, sp2-, and sp3-hybridized bonds. A research team succeeded to recover an ultrastrong carbon after compressing glassy carbon at various pressure and temperature conditions.  More...

Carbon gives rise to remarkable classes of materials with combined properties, such as low weight, high strength, hardness, elasticity, and tunable electronic properties, because of the flexibility to form sp-, sp2-, and sp3-hybridized bonds. A research team succeeded to recover an ultrastrong carbon after compressing glassy carbon at various pressure and temperature conditions.  The newly created glassy carbons are composed of mixed sp2-sp3 hybridized carbons with a low sp3 component, which gives rise to the unique combination of properties.  The compressed glassy carbons have extraordinary compressive strengths and simultaneously exhibit robust elastic recovery in response to local deformations. This type of carbon is an optimal ultralight and ultrastrong material for a wide range of multifunctional applications.   More in Hu et al. (2017), Science Advances, 3: e1603213, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1603213.

April 17, 2017

Zirconium has a low neutron cross section and high degree of corrosion resistance. It is widely used in industry and engineering, in particular in the area of refractory applications. Knowledge of elastic and thermal properties of zirconium is important for understanding the behavior and performance of the materials at extreme conditions. By combining X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging techniques, together with ultrasonic wave velocity measurements, in a Paris-Edinburgh press at HPCAT, a research team has determined multiple elastic and thermal properties including bulk modulus, shear modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and Debye temperature at high pressure and high temperature conditions.    More...

Zirconium has a low neutron cross section and high degree of corrosion resistance. It is widely used in industry and engineering, in particular in the area of refractory applications. Knowledge of elastic and thermal properties of zirconium is important for understanding the behavior and performance of the materials at extreme conditions.

March 14, 2017

It has been predicted that hydrogen-rich material may promote metallization of hydrogen through chemical pressure imposed by the foreign atoms or molecules. A group utilizing HPCAT’s facility studied a hydrogen rich compound, Ar(H2)2, to ultrahigh pressures over three megabars.  More...

It has been predicted that hydrogen-rich material may promote metallization of hydrogen through chemical pressure imposed by the foreign atoms or molecules. A group utilizing HPCAT’s facility studied a hydrogen rich compound, Ar(H2)2, to ultrahigh pressures over three megabars. Ar(H2)2 is a typical van der Waals compound, in which Ar atoms and H2 molecules are ‘glued’ together by the London dispersion forces, leaving the H2 units preserved.

March 13, 2017

As an archetypal semimetal with complex and anisotropic Fermi surface and unusual electric properties (e.g., high electrical resistance, large magnetoresistance, and giant Hall effect), bismuth (Bi) has played a critical role in metal physics. For over a century, Bi has been known to be diamagnetic. A research team observed unusual ferromagnetism in bulk Bi samples recovered from a molten state at pressures of 1.4–2.5 GPa and temperatures above 1,250 K.  More...

As an archetypal semimetal with complex and anisotropic Fermi surface and unusual electric properties (e.g., high electrical resistance, large magnetoresistance, and giant Hall effect), bismuth (Bi) has played a critical role in metal physics. For over a century, Bi has been known to be diamagnetic. A research team observed unusual ferromagnetism in bulk Bi samples recovered from a molten state at pressures of 1.4–2.5 GPa and temperatures above 1,250 K. Using HPCAT facility, the ferromagnetism is found to be associated with a surprising structural memory effect in the molten state. The ability for solid Bi to remember liquid structure motifs seems to be related to structural similarities between the solid and liquid around 2 GPa, where melting temperature is pressure-independent (i.e., no discontinuity in specific volume or density across the melting line).

March 9, 2017

Meteorites preserve evidence of processes ranging from the formation of the solar system to the origin of life on Earth and the potential for extraterrestrial habitability. One mineral of particular interest in meteorites is the phosphate mineral merrillite, an anhydrous end-member of the merrillite–whitlockite solid solution series, with whitlockite being the hydrogenated end member. Recent experimental observations...  More...

Meteorites preserve evidence of processes ranging from the formation of the solar system to the origin of life on Earth and the potential for extraterrestrial habitability. One mineral of particular interest in meteorites is the phosphate mineral merrillite, an anhydrous end-member of the merrillite–whitlockite solid solution series, with whitlockite being the hydrogenated end member. Recent experimental observations have raised a question as to why merrillite rather than whitlockite forms in a melt with available H2O at the time of phosphate crystallization. One possibility is that shock has devolatilized what was, in part or whole, whitlockite into merrillite. A research group, using synchrotron facilities including HPCAT, inspected the shock-transformation products of Mg-whitlockite. Post-shock samples show that merrillite is produced from whitlockite (Figure) during experimental shock events.

March 2, 2017

High-pressure melting anchors the phase diagram of a material, revealing the effect of pressure on the breakdown of the ordering of atoms in the solid. An important case is molybdenum (Mo), which has long been speculated to undergo an exceptionally steep increase in melting temperature when compressed.  Recent HPCAT experiments found a high-slope melting curve in Mo.  More...

High-pressure melting anchors the phase diagram of a material, revealing the effect of pressure on the breakdown of the ordering of atoms in the solid. An important case is molybdenum (Mo), which has long been speculated to undergo an exceptionally steep increase in melting temperature when compressed. On the other hand, previous experiments lacking reliable melting criteria, showed a nearly constant melting temperature as a function of pressure, a large discrepancy with theoretical expectations. Using microstructure to define a material’s molten history, a group in recent HPCAT experiments found a high-slope melting curve in Mo. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the crystalline microstructures, generated by heating and subsequently rapidly quenching samples in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell.

February 14, 2017

At ambient condition, the chemistry of water is so stable that it is considered as the unit of hydrogen carrier in the hydrosphere. For a long time, cycling of hydrogen is equivalent to the cycling of water in the Earth’s solid crust and mantle. Geoscientists rarely treat water in its decomposable forms, like hydrogen plus oxygen. Using HPCAT facility, a team discovered hydrogen was freed from hydrous minerals in its elemental form.  More...

At ambient condition, the chemistry of water is so stable that it is considered as the unit of hydrogen carrier in the hydrosphere. For a long time, cycling of hydrogen is equivalent to the cycling of water in the Earth’s solid crust and mantle. Geoscientists rarely treat water in its decomposable forms, like hydrogen plus oxygen. Using HPCAT facility, a team discovered hydrogen was freed from hydrous minerals in its elemental form. Starting from a typical hydrous mineral (goethite) and placing it under lower mantle pressure-temperature conditions, they have observed hydrogen released and the hydrogen loss closely related with the heating temperature and duration. The released hydrogen can directly source the liquid outer core, which is considered to have a substantial amount of hydrogen.

January 23, 2017

A metastable liquid may exist under supercooling, sustaining the liquid below the melting point such as supercooled water and silicon. One important question is whether a crystalline solid may directly melt into a sustainable metastable liquid. A research group utilized HPCAT facility and observed first experimental evidence of creating a metastable liquid directly by a different approach.   More...

A metastable liquid may exist under supercooling, sustaining the liquid below the melting point such as supercooled water and silicon. One important question is whether a crystalline solid may directly melt into a sustainable metastable liquid. A research group utilizing HPCAT's facility observed first experimental evidence of creating a metastable liquid directly by a different approach: melting a high-pressure solid crystal of the metal bismuth via a decompression process below its melting point. When a crystal structure of bismuth is decompressed from 3.2 GPa to 1.2 GPa at 489 K, it melts into a liquid at about 2.3 GPa (middle), and then recrystallizes at 1.2 GPa. The decompression-induced metastable liquid can be maintained for hours in static conditions, and transform to crystalline phases when external perturbations, such as heating and cooling, are applied. It occurs in the pressure–temperature region similar to where the supercooled liquid Bi is observed.

January 18, 2017

Extreme magnetoresistance (XMR) has been recently observed in a growing number of topological semimetals. Recent studies on (W/Mo)Te2 and (Zr/Hf)Te5 suggest that pressure suppresses the XMR and gives rise to superconductivity. To search for a relation between XMR and superconductivity, a research team used HPCAT facility to study the effect of pressure on LaBi.  More....

Extreme magnetoresistance (XMR) has been recently observed in a growing number of topological semimetals. Recent studies on (W/Mo)Te2 and (Zr/Hf)Te5 suggest that pressure suppresses the XMR and gives rise to superconductivity. To search for a relation between XMR and superconductivity, a research team used HPCAT facility to study the effect of pressure on LaBi. A disappearance of XMR, together with an appearance of superconductivity, is observed at a pressure of ~3.5 GPa, showing the pressure effect on XMR and superconductivity in LaBi. Different from other superconducting XMR materials, a pressure region of coexistence between superconductivity and XMR is observed in LaBi. The suppression of XMR in LaBi is accompanied by a sign change in the Hall coefficient RH from negative to positive. The change in the crystal structure is found to be responsible for the change in band structure and creates a region of band inversion in LaBi.

January 4, 2017

Spin cross over may be induced by external stimuli such as light, heat, pressure, and magnetic fields, and provides an electronic origin responsible for corporative structural, electrical, magnetic, and/or optical alterations, with wide applications such as in memory, display, and sensor technologies. Based on recent experiments at HPCAT, together with electronic transport data, a research group observed a pressure-driven spin-cross-overs in the 2D honeycomb antiferromagnetic materials MnPS3 and MnPSe3 at room temperature.  More....

Spin cross over may be induced by external stimuli such as light, heat, pressure, and magnetic fields, and provides an electronic origin responsible for corporative structural, electrical, magnetic, and/or optical alterations, with wide applications such as in memory, display, and sensor technologies. Based on recent experiments at HPCAT, together with electronic transport data, a research group observed a pressure-driven spin-cross-overs in the 2D honeycomb antiferromagnetic materials MnPS3 and MnPSe3 at room temperature. Applying pressure to the confined 2D systems leads to a dramatic magnetic moment collapse of Mn2+ (d5) from S = 5/2 to S = 1/2. Significantly, a number of collective phenomena were observed along with the spin change, including a large lattice collapse (∼20% in volume), and the formation of metallic bonding.

December 5, 2016

Strong parallels exist between the packing of tetrahedra and network topologies found in H2O and SiO2 phases. For examples, tridymite and cristobalite are analogues of ice Ih and Ic, respectively; low-energy hypothetical ice analogues of quartz have been predicted theoretically. By loading binary H2 + H2O samples in diamond anvil cells, a team used HPCAT facility and discovered a unique hydrogen-filled, ice-based chiral structure with oxygen topology very similar to the mineral quartz and other, as-of-yet-hypothetical, three-dimensional nets.  More...

Strong parallels exist between the packing of tetrahedra and network topologies found in H2O and SiO2 phases. For examples, tridymite and cristobalite are analogues of ice Ih and Ic, respectively; low-energy hypothetical ice analogues of quartz have been predicted theoretically. By loading binary H2 + H2O samples in diamond anvil cells, a team used HPCAT facility and discovered a unique hydrogen-filled, ice-based chiral structure with oxygen topology very similar to the mineral quartz and other, as-of-yet-hypothetical, three-dimensional nets. Structural examination by single crystal x-ray diffraction shows that the H-bonded network forms large channels along the crystallographic c-axis, leaving the 6a Wyckoff position available for rotationally disordered H2 molecules, which is fully consistent with the single-site, filled-ice-like structure inferred from Raman measurements.

December 2, 2016

Among thousands of known chemical interactions between common elements in the periodic table, there remain bonds that are curiously absent. Iron-bismuth is such a system, exhibiting complete immiscibility even in the liquid state. Using laser-heated diamond anvil cells, recent experiments at HPCAT have revealed a new form of intermetallic FeBi2More...

Among thousands of known chemical interactions between common elements in the periodic table, there remain bonds that are curiously absent. Iron-bismuth is such a system, exhibiting complete immiscibility even in the liquid state. Using laser-heated diamond anvil cells, recent experiments at HPCAT have revealed a new form of intermetallic FeBi2. The new material, formed at 1500 K and 30 GPa, possesses the Al2Cu-type structure featuring Fe coordinated by eight Bi atoms in face-sharing square antiprisms along the c-axis. By combining the paramagnetism of iron with the spin-orbit coupling inherent to bismuth, the new material may display transformative magnetic properties. This research, conducted at beamline 16-ID-B, is a collaboration between Danna Freedman (Chemistry) and Steve Jacobsen (Earth and Planetary Sciences) from Northwestern and Yue Meng (Carnegie Institution of Washington).

December 2, 2016

Thermoelectric materials have a wide range of applications, such as commercial refrigeration, energy-efficient engines, etc.  Their effectiveness has certain limitations, however, expressed by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = (α2σ/κ)T, where α is the Seebeck coefficient, σ the electrical conductivity, κ the thermal conductivity, and T the temperature. To obtain insight into the effects of structure and phase variation on the figure of merit, a technique for in-situ high-pressure thermoelectricity measurement has been developed at the HPCAT by utilizing a Paris-Edinburgh press.  More....

Thermoelectric materials have a wide range of applications, such as commercial refrigeration, energy-efficient engines, etc.  Their effectiveness has certain limitations, however, expressed by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = (α2σ/κ)T, where α is the Seebeck coefficient, σ the electrical conductivity, κ the thermal conductivity, and T the temperature. To obtain insight into the effects of structure and phase variation on the figure of merit, a technique for in-situ high-pressure thermoelectricity measurement has been developed at the HPCAT by utilizing a Paris-Edinburgh press. The dedicated sample cell design is composed of an asymmetric heat source, directional heat flow guides, thermally transparent but electrically insulating windows, and thermocouple electrode wires of which the Seebeck coefficients are already known.

September 22, 2016

A phase transition with an abrupt volume collapse of >20% could be associated with dramatic changes of electronic orbitals and/or spin-states of involved transition metals. Using HPCAT capabilities of high-pressure X-ray diffraction and X-ray emission spectroscopy, the mechanism of the pressure-driven lattice collapse in MnS and MnSe is studied. More...

A phase transition with an abrupt volume collapse of >20% could be associated with dramatic changes of electronic orbitals and/or spin-states of involved transition metals. Using HPCAT capabilities of high-pressure X-ray diffraction and X-ray emission spectroscopy, the mechanism of the pressure-driven lattice collapse in MnS and MnSe is studied. Both MnS and MnSe exhibit a rocksalt-to-MnP phase transition under compression with ~22-23% unit-cell volume changes at a similar pressure range around 25GPa. The phase transition was found to be coupled with the Mn2+(d5) spin-state transition from S=5/2 to S=1/2 and the formation of Mn-Mn intermetallic bonding. The mutual relationship between pressure-driven lattice collapse and the orbital/spin-state of Mn2+ in manganese chalcogenides provides an insight toward the exploration of new metastable phases with exceptional functionalities. (Published in Wang, et al., Angew. Chem. Int.

September 9, 2016

A hallmark of the iron-based superconductors is the strong coupling between magnetic, structural and electronic degrees of freedom. Using HPCAT capabilities of high-pressure x-ray diffraction and time-domain Mössbauer spectroscopy, the nematicity and magnetism in FeSe under applied pressure are found to be strongly coupled. More....

A hallmark of the iron-based superconductors is the strong coupling between magnetic, structural and electronic degrees of freedom. Using HPCAT capabilities of high-pressure x-ray diffraction and time-domain Mössbauer spectroscopy, the nematicity and magnetism in FeSe under applied pressure are found to be strongly coupled. Distinct structural and magnetic transitions are observed for pressures between 1.0 and 1.7 GPa and merge into a single first-order transition for pressures ≳1.7 GPa, reminiscent of what has been found for the evolution of these transitions in the prototypical system Ba(Fe1−xCox)2As2. Our results are consistent with a spin-driven mechanism for nematic order in FeSe and provide an important step towards a universal description of the normal state properties of the iron-based superconductors. [K. Kothapalli et al, Nature Comm. 7, 12728 (2016)]

 

September 9, 2016

Electronic topological transition (ETT), where new features occur in the topology of the Fermi surface, has strong influences on structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of materials. Recent nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments at HPCAT strongly support a thermally driven ETT that drives anomalous changes in phonon dynamics.  More...

Electronic topological transition (ETT), where new features occur in the topology of the Fermi surface, has strong influences on structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of materials. Recent nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments at HPCAT strongly support a thermally driven ETT that drives anomalous changes in phonon dynamics. The thermally induced ETT in FeTi causes an increased electronic screening for the atom displacements in the M5 phonon mode and an adiabatic electron phonon interaction with an unusual temperature dependence. This behavior is consistent with the atomic displacement pattern, in which (110) planes slide in opposite [110] directions. From the phonon polarization vectors, it is found that the magnitude of the Fe displacement is at least twice as that of Ti. [F. C. yang et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 117, 076402, (2016)]

August 17, 2016

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted much attention owing to their high power conversion efficiency and low manufacturing cost. Recently, organotin perovskites have been synthesized as lead-free alternatives, and a number of chemical and processing modifications have been applied to these compounds in an effort to tune their crystal structure and electronic properties. More...

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted much attention owing to their high power conversion efficiency and low manufacturing cost.  Power conversion efficiencies of over 20% have recently been achieved with lead-based organic-inorganic halide PSCs, but these have relatively low structural stability, and the use of lead in the manufacturing process introduces problems of toxicity.  Recently, organotin perovskites have been synthesized as lead-free alternatives, and a number of chemical and processing modifications have been applied to these compounds in an effort to tune their crystal structure and electronic properties, with the hope of yielding more stable compounds which exhibit superior absorption and conductivity.

August 4, 2016

The lanthanide elements show many interesting phenomena such as heavy fermion metal properties and unconventional superconductivity due to their ƒ electrons. Among all lanthanide metals, only Ce and Eu are known to become superconducting under pressure. In order to understand the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in europium at extreme pressures, experiments using X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at HPCAT and nuclear forwarding scattering (NFS) at sector 3 of APS have been done recently. More...

The lanthanide elements show many interesting phenomena such as heavy fermion metal properties and unconventional superconductivity due to their ƒ electrons. Among all lanthanide metals, only Ce and Eu are known to become superconducting under pressure. In order to understand the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in europium at extreme pressures, experiments using X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at HPCAT and nuclear forwarding scattering (NFS) at sector 3 of APS have been done recently. With pressure above 80GPa, Eu has a critical superconducting temperature around 2K. Magnetic order in Eu is found to collapse just above 80GPa in association with the superconducting state according NFS spectra; however no change in the Lγ1 line of Eu in XES is observed up to 119GPa. These results indicate that the highly localized character of the 4ƒ7 magnetic state in Eu remains intact and Eu remains nearly divalent to at least 119GPa.